The Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna, founded in 1883, is Rome’s primary museum for late 19th and early 20th century modern art. While the majority of the collections is composed of paintings and sculptures by Italian artists, such as Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla, the museum also features works by Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and other famous modern artists.

Originally located in the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, the museum moved to its current location in 1911. The primary designer of the building was noted architect Cesare Bazzani who, alongside three Italian sculptures, gave the building a modern, Realist design. In 1933, the building was expanded to host a Fascist art exhibition and became seen as a prime example of the architectural style of Mussolini's Italy.